Differences cannot simply be attributed to hormones. An mRNA splice site may be altered such that protein isoforms are inappropriately expressed in a given tissue. American Journal of Hypertension. There are XY individuals with a genetic variant of the androgen receptor who are unambiguously heterosexual women and who are engaged in feminine social roles ranging from actresses to Olympic athletes. Previous chapters have discussed the contributions of the social environment, behavior, psychological factors, physiological mechanisms, and genetic variation to health.
The prevalence of HIV infection through needle-stick injury is higher among female health care workers because the majority of doctors are men, the majority of nurses and phlebotomists are women, and drawing blood is relegated to nurses and phlebotomists who are mostly women Ippolito et al. Moreover, leptin stimulates cellular components of innate immunity, stimulating T-cells, macrophages, and neutrophils, as well as preventing the programmed cell death of neutrophils apoptosis Bruno et al. In the Census, less than 3 percent 6. Finally, an epigenetic mechanism may be altered leading to changes in developmental timing of a particular protein. The importance of race and ethnic background in biomedical research and clinical practice. Leptin has long-term effects on the regulation of body weight, mediated through appetite, energy expenditure and body temperature. In line with this, Burchard and colleagues found that population genetic research of the last 20 years shows that the largest genetic differences occur between groups separated by continents. Marked sex differences can be seen in levels of leptin, which in men but not women are associated with hypertension Sheu et al. Until the Olympic committee changed its definition of sex from genetic to hormonal sex, such women had to compete as men. Early games, including some MMORPGs like World of Warcraft , featured multiple playable fictional races that the player could choose from at the beginning of the game. Being Black, Living in the Red: The adverse health effects of poverty see Chapter 2 of this report therefore fall disproportionately on women and their children. Though, Native Americans have been the protagonists of several video games, most notably in the Turok series, and in the title Prey. These differences in income and wealth are partly attributable to differences in average educational attainment when comparing African Americans In other instances, gender relations account substantially for observed gender differentials for a given health outcome—for example the higher prevalence of needle-stick injuries among female compared to male health care workers, which is in turn attributed to the gender segregation of the health care workforce. African Americans also report higher levels of uninsurance National Center for Health Statistics. It is only by studying the multiple levels and risk factors simultaneously within subgroups defined by ethnicity, geography, genetic backgrounds, and exposures to the environment that we will begin to understand how specific combinations of environmental factors combine with specific combinations of genetic factors to give rise to health differences. Self-report has been the classic measure for race and is still reliable in some cases given certain caveats. For example, a brief stressor mimicking a burrow collapse results in a more pronounced long-term innate inflammatory response in female rats than in male rats exposed to the same stressor Hermes et al. Sources of individual differences in health and behavior in African Americans have implications for the quality of late life as well as quantity of late life years of life remaining. Social Science and Medicine. These women share the health risk of gonadal cancer, and typically their testes—their source of estrogens—are removed. Race also is notoriously difficult to define and is inconsistently reported in the literature and in self-reports. Some research suggests that African Americans may experience events and circumstances that have sociocultural origins that significantly influence development over the life course Levine, ; Spencer et al. At the same time, adjusting for socioeconomic differences does not completely eliminate racial disparities for all health outcomes e. However, their social roles—as actresses or Olympic athletes, for example— are better predictors of cardiovascular health and risk for muscle injury.
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